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 Flying - the Muggle way!

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littleprincess_01
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PostSubject: Flying - the Muggle way!   Tue May 29 2007, 08:30

Well, we all know about flying the wizarding way - broomsticks and flying carpets and such. But muggles, they can fly too - right? But how?

Answer the following questions about muggle flight in as much detail as possible. One sentences answers will not be good enough to get you any points.

Aeroplanes
Firstly how and when did muggles first discover flight (in aeroplanes)? Who discovered it? Explain in as much detail as you can. (15)

How did this develop? Explain the different steps of the evolution of aeroplanes up until the modern day. (15)

Current areoplanes - briefly explain how they work. (5)

Other flight
What other ways are there of muggles flying? Explain them - in detail. (15)

Total - 50 points
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PostSubject: Re: Flying - the Muggle way!   Thu May 31 2007, 04:30

Since pre-history, people have dreamt of flying. Many stories have been told about flight, a good example is the Greek legend of Icarus and Daedalus. Leonardo da Vinci drew an aircraft during the Renaissance Era. The first flight was made by Francois Pilatre de Rozier and Francois d’Arlandes in a balloon.

Sir Ryan Edward built a successful passenger-carrying glider in 1853. In 1856, Jean-Marie Le Bris had his glider pulled by a horse on the beach, making the first powered flight. John J. Montgomery made a controlled flight in a glider in 1883.

Brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright were commonly credited for the invention of the aircraft. They made a successful test flight in 1903. Alberto Santos-Dumont built the first practical dirigible balloons from the end of the nineteenth century. Aircrafts paid a primary role in World Wars I and II.

The first commercial jet, the de Havilland Comet, was introduced in 1952. A few Boeing 707s, the first widely successful commercial jet, are still in service after nearly 50 years. The Boeing 727 was another widely used passenger aircraft, and the Boeing 747, was the biggest commercial aircraft in the world up until 2005, when it was surpassed by the Airbus A380.

The different types of aeroplanes are:

Gliders are heavier-than-air aeroplanes that are predominantly intended for unpowered flight, especially in the sport of gliding.

Propeller aircrafts are quieter than jet aircraft, but they fly at lower speed. They are cheaper and more efficient than jets, and people use them to transport a few passengers and/or small amounts of cargo.

Jet aircrafts fly on high altitudes. They have greater weight capacity, too. However, they are noisy, and often a source of noise pollution.

Rocket-powered aircrafts use rockets for propulsion and they achieve higher speeds than a jet aircraft, but only for a few minutes.

Another mode of aviation is by hot-air balloon wherein a hot air balloon consists of an envelope containing hot air and suspended beneath is a gondola or wicker basket where the people ride. It’s mostly ridden for leisure and relaxation.
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PostSubject: Re: Flying - the Muggle way!   Fri Jun 08 2007, 09:51

Aeroplanes
Firstly how and when did muggles first discover flight (in aeroplanes)? Who discovered it? Explain in as much detail as you can. (15)

1903-Flyer one
Aeroplanes were first designed by two men, the Wright brothers. The Wrights spent a great deal of time observing birds in flight. They noticed that birds soared into the wind and that the air flowing over the curved surface of their wings created lift. Birds change the shape of their wings to turn and maneuver. They believed that they could use this technique to obtain roll control by warping, or changing the shape, of a portion of the wing. The boys then used this information to continue building.
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket

How did this develop? Explain the different steps of the evolution of aeroplanes up until the modern day. (15)
From the first aeroplane made (see answer one) things developed pretty fast and aeroplanes became an essential part of the second world war.
The “Battle of Britain” was all fought in the air using different types of aircrafts for example a hurricane.
This image is of a plane used in the second world war. Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket
After the second world war the planes did not develop too much just the design etc here is and example
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket
Today aeroplanes are a major part of the world as millions and millions of people board a plane each and everyday an example of a modern day plane is Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket

Current areoplanes - briefly explain how they work. (5)
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket
Straight and Level Flight
In order for an airplane to fly straight and level, the following relationships must be true:
• Thrust = Drag
• Lift = Weight
If, for any reason, the amount of drag becomes larger than the amount of thrust, the plane will slow down. If the thrust is increased so that it is greater than the drag, the plane will speed up.
Similarly, if the amount of lift drops below the weight of the airplane, the plane will descend. By increasing the lift, the pilot can make the airplane climb.
Thrust
Thrust is an aerodynamic force that must be created by an airplane in order to overcome the drag (notice that thrust and drag act in opposite directions in the figure above). Airplanes create thrust using propellers, jet engines or rockets. In the figure above, the thrust is being created with a propeller, which acts like a very powerful version of a household fan, pulling air past the blades.


Other flight
What other ways are there of muggles flying? Explain them - in detail. (15)


Hot air Balloons Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket: A hot air balloon is basically an huge balloon with a basket attached to the bottom you use fire to keep your selves going up.
Paragliding: Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket
paragliders can be soared effortlessly on windward slopes and across country in good conditions.
Rocket: Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket
Use of fire this is used to go into outta space.
Total - 50 points

Sources: http://travel.howstuffworks.com/airplane1.htm
www.google.co.uk/images


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PostSubject: Re: Flying - the Muggle way!   Mon Aug 13 2007, 11:18

Flying-The Muggle Way!

Aeroplanes
Firstly how and when did muggles first discover flight (in aeroplanes)? Who discovered it? Explain in as much detail as you can. (15)
Oliver and Wilber Wright of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina were the first to build a controllable flight machine. At 10:35 am on the 17th of December in 1903, their flying machine became the first ‘airplane’ to soar across the skies. It rose 10 feet in the air, traveled for 120 feet, and landed 12 seconds after its take off. Before their now famous first flight, the two brothers had spent many years studying the past efforts of those who, like them, had been trying to figure out the secret of how to allow humans to fly. They also conducted many tests, using balloons and kites. Through these tests, they were able to figure out how the wind could help flight and the different effects it had on different surfaces. Their next set of tests used gliders; and by use of a wind tunnel, studied the effects of different wings and tails. Eventually, they found a glider shape that was consistently performing well in their tests. The next step was to design a propulsion system that would keep the glider in the air. Their first engine generated almost 12 horsepower, and Orville Wright is credited with the first ‘flight’ (as it was his turn to test their plane).

How did this develop? Explain the different steps of the evolution of aeroplanes up until the modern day. (15)
The mere idea of flight dates back to prehistory. Many of the common myths show it as a common theme-one example being Icarus and his father flying away on wings that were constructed with feathers, wood, and glue. The Chinese discovered the kites that became the grandparents of the hot air balloons and gliders. For many years, people tried fashioning wings out of wood and feathers, but since the human arm is not as strong as a bird’s wing, the results were just short of disastrous. Hero of Alexandria invented what he called the ‘aeophile’. By the use of jets of steam, a rotary motion was created. DaVinci himself once came up with “plans” (if you can call them that) for a winged craft called the Ornithopter-it was never built, but his notes on flight were studied by the 19th century aviation engineers. The father of aerodynmics is considered by many to be Sir George Cayley. He experiment with wing design, defined the difference between lift and drag, formulated the concepts of vertical tail surfaces, steering rudders, rear elevators, and air screws. He was one busy man. The gliders he designed could be controlled by the movements of the body. An unknown young boy was the first to fly one of Cayley’s gliders, which was the first glider capable of carrying a human. Cayley later wrote a book in which he stated that ‘fixed wing aircraft with a power system for propulsion, and a tail to assist in the control of the airplane’ would be the best mechanism that would allow a human to fly. Otto Lilienthal was the first person to design a glider that would fly over long idstances while carrying a human passenger. His published works were used by the Wright brothers in their designs. Unfortunately, Lilienthal was killed after 2500 flights when a strong gust of wind knocked into his glider, causing him to lose control and fall to his death on the ground. Samuel Langley was the first to realize that in order to fly successfully, you would need to power the aircraft. His experiments used whirling steam and motors, and built a model of a jet plane-what he called an aerodrome, which used a steam powered engine. The model flew for ¾ of a mile before running out of steam. However, when he built his full-sized aerodrome, it was much too heavy and large and crashed. After this failed attempt, he gave up on flight, but his major contribution was the idea of using power to get an aircraft in the air. Octave Chanute’s biplane was the basis of the Wright biplane that later flew at Kitty Hawk. The book he wrote on aerodynmaics was also used by the Wrights, whom I described in the previous question. All of the combined successes of the past engineers has led to today’s airplane.

Current areoplanes - briefly explain how they work. (5)
he engines on each wing push the plane forward, and as it gains speed, the plane is lifted into flight. It does this because the wings on the airplanes we fly today are curved, which causes the air to move faster on top of the wing. The slower air underneath the wing pushes the plane upwards, lifting it into flight. The pilot controls the plane by the use of rudders, ailerons, and elevators. The rudders turn the plane, the ailerons raise and lower the wings, and the elevators control the plane’s climb and descent.

Other flight
What other ways are there of muggles flying? Explain them - in detail. (15)

Helicopters: While slightly more difficult to control than a plane, the helicopter is able to go places planes can’t. The rotary motion of the wings (which are narrower and thinner than those on an airplane) creates the lift described by the use of the planes wings, which raises the helicopter up into the air. The tail rotor of the helicopter gives it the thrust to propel it forward, so that the helicopter not only flies upwards, it can fly forwards and backwards as well; the airplane’s propeller does this, only it does not allow the plane to fly backwards. Both of these rotors are adjustable, so that the pilot is able to control the helicopter.

Hot air balloons: While slightly impractical due to the fact that you cannot steer it, hot air balloons are a very exhilarating method of flight. The principals that allow the balloon to fly are these: warm air rises faster than cool air because warm air is lighter than cool air. Basically, the flame located below the ‘balloon’ heats up the air inside of the balloon, causing it to become warm air. So, warm air is lighter than cool air, and up the balloon goes. The flame does not have to be constantly burning, the pilot of the balloon only needs to turn the flame on every once in a while to ensure that cool air doesn’t fill the balloon, causing it to fall.

Hang glider: Hang gliding is the closest muggles seem to be able to get to free-flying. The wings of the hang glider are designed like those of a helicopter and an airplane. When a person runs and jumps off a cliff on a hang glider, the air above the wing is being increased in speed, pushing the bottom of the wing upwards. The wing has to be at a certain angle, however, or else flight won’t be as effective. Also, when a glider flies over a spot where heat is rising, it lifts them higher-as hot air rises.



Total - 50 points


http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blairplane.htm
http://science.howstuffworks.com/helicopter.htm
http://travel.howstuffworks.com/hot-air-balloon.htm
http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/211_fall2002.web.dir/nathan_earls.dir/intro_slide.html
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PostSubject: Re: Flying - the Muggle way!   Sat Sep 01 2007, 23:50

Aeroplanes
Firstly how and when did muggles first discover flight (in aeroplanes)? Who discovered it? Explain in as much detail as you can. (15)

Orville and Wilber Wright are the brother from Millville Indiana who are documented as the first inventors of the modern airplane. They started out as “The Wright Brothers” producing their own newspaper, and then moved on to owning a bicycle shop. In 1896 Orville contracted typhoid fever. While nursing his brother back to health, Wilber read him stories about a famous German glider pilot. Wilbur became interested and wrote to the Smithsonian requesting all information about flight. He was the first to recognize “the need to control a flying machine in its three axes of motion: pitch, roll, and yaw.” In 1900 he built a glider and tested it in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. They tested their glider in a wind tunnel and in 1902 built a new one. After a successful test they developed an engine to add to the glider, and on December 17 1903 made the first machine powered flight in the world.

How did this develop? Explain the different steps of the evolution of aeroplanes up until the modern day. (15)

In January 1910, the Wright Brothers began manufacturing airplanes. Later that same month they begin to put together a flying team. In March of that year they opened a flying school that later became Maxwell Air Force Base. Also in March, a seaplane was successfully flown by Henri Fabre, who also designed it. In February of 1911, a Bleriot airplane carries ten passengers and opens up the possibility of multi-passenger flight. The first airplane with a completely enclosed fuselage was built in the summer of 1911. In the summer of 1912 the first airplane with an enclosed cabin is built. Large airplane engineering, which lead to airliners, was marked by the Bolshoi, which flew in May of 1913. The first airline to have a regular schedule was founded in January of 1914 by P.E. Fansler.

Current areoplanes - briefly explain how they work. (5)

The four basic principles involved in flight are lift, thrust, weight, and drag. Thrust is created by the airplane to overcome drag. It is created by engines or propellers that pull the air through past the blades. Drag resists movement, like when you hold your hand out of the car while it is moving and your hand slows down. Airplanes must decrease the amount of drag to keep moving. Weight is just the weight of the object, in this case and airplane. Lift holds the airplane in the air. It is usually created by the wings. The air moving over the top of the wing moves slower than the air going under. The top air creates low pressure, the bottom air creates high pressure which lifts it up.

Other flight
What other ways are there of muggles flying? Explain them - in detail. (15)

Hot Air Balloons- Hot Air Balloons are big balloons with a basket attached to the bottom. They fly using hot air, which is lighter than regular air. There is a burner under the balloon, and when you want to go up, you heat up the air within the balloon which causes it to rise. As the air cools the balloon descends.

Hang Gliders- Hand Gliders use the same principles of the airplane, only they have a type of sail instead of a wing and no engine.

Gliders- Gliders have been used since the days of the Wright Brothers. They are airplanes without the engine.



http://www.thehenryford.org/exhibits/wright/default.asp
http://www.first-to-fly.com/History/History%20of%20Airplane/centafter.htm
http://travel.howstuffworks.com/airplane6.htm
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PostSubject: Re: Flying - the Muggle way!   Sun Dec 09 2007, 11:35

Here are the points as follows:

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Gryffindor
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