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 CLOSING 18TH AUGUST - The Tudor Era

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PostSubject: CLOSING 18TH AUGUST - The Tudor Era   Mon Apr 02 2007, 11:27

Hey all! It's me, June, and I am Swifty's little Prefect helper.

This class focuses on the Tudor Era in England (from the reign of King Henry VII to the death of Queen Elizabeth I). The questions will be in chronological order (except for questions 5 and 9 in Part 2.

Please remember to cite your sources!

Part 1
1. Under what circumstances did King Henry VII come to the English throne? (2)

2. From when to when did he reign? (2)

3. List three major achievements of King Henry VIII (2)

4. Who was Catherine of Aragon? (2)

5. Who were the six wives of King Henry VIII? Please list them and state your opinion of each. Also please say how the poem, "Divorced, beheaded, died; Divorced, beheaded, survived." relates to them. (6)

6. Who were the children of Henry VIII? (2)

7. What happened during the meeting at the Field of Cloth of Gold? (2)

8. During King Henry VIII's reign, what was the religious upheaval that occurred? (2)


Part 2

1. Who was King after King Henry VIII? (2)

2. Who was Queen for nine days? (2)

3. State your opinon of her. (4)

4. Why was Queen Mary I nicknamed Bloody Mary? (2)

5. Give an example of scandal that surrounded Elizabeth's life. (2)

6. For how long was Elizabeth I imprisoned during Mary's reign? (2)

7. Who said, "This is the Lord's doing; it is marvellous in our eyes" and on what occasion was it said? (4)

8. What is your opinion of Queen Elizabeth I? (6)

9. List a timeline of the Spanish Armada (and preparations for). Give atleast three dates. (6)

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PostSubject: Re: CLOSING 18TH AUGUST - The Tudor Era   Sun May 13 2007, 04:57

Part 1

1. Under what circumstances did King Henry VIII come to the English throne?
King Henry VIII succeeded the English throne when Prince Arthur, his older brother, suddenly died in 1502.

2. From when to when did he reign?
King Henry VIII reigned from April 22, 1509 until his death in January 28, 1547.

3. List three major achievements of King Henry VIII.
King Henry VIII managed to seal an alliance between England and Spain; he then launched the English Reformation, wherein England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. He also founded the Royal Navy along with Alfred the Great and Charles II.

4. Who was Catherine of Aragon?
Catherine of Aragon was the first wife of King Henry VIII whom he had tried to have their marriage put an end to because all of the male heirs apparently died in childhood.

5. Who were the six wives of King Henry VIII? Please list them and state your opinion of each. Also, please say how the poem “Divorced, beheaded, died; divorced, beheaded, survived” relates to them.
The six wives of King Henry VIII are the following:
1. Catherine of Aragon: She is the first wife of King Henry VIII, and it was said that Henry supposedly. She was extremely popular with the people. They were happily-enough married until Henry became worried about getting a male heir. His male children apparently die at a very young age, and the remaining child was Mary, but at that time, no female heiresses were allowed. Henry then tried to annul their marriage and he succeeded. Catherine was separated from her daughter and was sent to live in remote castles and in humble conditions.
2. Anne Boleyn: She is the second wife and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II. Her marriage to the king and her later execution were part of the English Reformation, and Anne herself keenly promoted the cause of the Church reform. She has been called “the most influential and important queen consort England has ever had.” She was beheaded on charges of adultery, incest, and treason.
3. Jane Seymour: She is the third wife of King Henry VIII who died of post-natal complications following the birth of her only son, Edward VI. She’s also the king’s sixth cousin twice removed. As Queen, she was strict and formal, and appeared to be politically conservative.
4. Anne of Cleves: She is the fourth wife of King Henry VIII. She received no formal education and was skilled in needlework. She had learned to read and write in German only. Even so, Anne was considered temperate, honest, and docile. However, Henry claimed that Anne was so unsightly that he could not bear to sleep with her. She and Henry annulled their marriage six months later.
5. Catherine Howard: The fifth wife of Henry VIII and sometimes referred to as “the rose without a thorn”. However, Catherine’s marital conduct and past sexual history were known to be unchaste, so she was beheaded after less than two years of marriage on the grounds of treason.
6. Catherine Parr: The sixth and last wife of Henry VIII, she was the most married queen of England, with four husbands.
The poem “divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived” is a mnemonic for the fates of Henry’s wives. King Henry married six wives – one died, one survived, two divorced, two beheaded.

6. Who were the children of King Henry VIII?
The surviving children of King Henry VIII were Queen Mary I, Queen Elizabeth I, and King Edward VI.

7. What happened during the meeting at the Field of Cloth of Gold?
In the Field of Cloth of Gold, a meeting between King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France was arrange to increase the bond of friendship between them following the Anglo-French treaty of 1518.

8. During King Henry VIII’s reign, what was the religious upheaval that occurred?
The English Reformation was the religious upheaval that occurred during King Henry VIII’s reign when Pope Clement VII rejected the petition for King Henry to annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon.

Part 2

1. Who was King after King Henry VIII?
Edward VI – at that time nine years old – was King after King Henry VIII, and he was the first Protestant ruler.

2. Who was the Queen for nine days?
Queen Mary I was Queen of England for nine days.

3. State your opinion of her.
Mary I is known to be an ailing who suffered from poor eyesight, sinus conditions, and bad headaches. Despite that, she is a talented child, being intelligent and able to play the virginals, a small harpsichord. Her talent and intelligence is shown during her reign.

4. Why was Queen Mary I nicknamed “Bloody Mary”?
Queen Mary I was nicknamed Blood Mary because she executed three hundred religious nonconformists during her reign.

5. Give an example of a scandal that surrounded Elizabeth’s life.
One of the scandals that surrounded Elizabeth’s life was her sex life. England whispered about the possibility of Elizabeth having giggle children. Her supposed celibacy was also gossiped about; rumors abound that no one would marry her because she was uncultivable or had some sort of sexual deformity.

6. For how long was Elizabeth I imprisoned during Mary’s reign?
Elizabeth was imprisoned for four years, from 1554 to 1558.

7. Who said, “This is the Lord’s doing; it is marvelous in our eyes” and on what occasion was it said?
Legend has it that Elizabeth was sitting beneath an oak tree reading the Greek Bible at Hatfield when the news reached her. A manservant approached her and breathlessly said, “Your Majesty…”. Elizabeth then quoted Psalm 118 in response: “This is the Lord’s doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes”.

8. What is your opinion of Queen Elizabeth I?
Queen Elizabeth, for me, is a very strong woman. Despite the scandals surrounding her and her family, she wasn’t hindered by it and she managed to make England a brand new and better place for the English people to live in.

List a timeline of the Spanish Armada (and preparations for). Give at least three dates.
1584- Philip II of Spain appoints the Marquis of Santa Cruz as Captain General of the Ocean Sea.
1585- Philip II considers the possibility of invading England.
1586- Philip II invites The Marquis of Santa Cruz and Parma to prepare an invasion plan.

1586- Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, nominates Philip II as her successor to the English throne.

1587 February- Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, is executed after being found guilty of plotting to overthrow Elizabeth I.
April-June- Sir Francis Drake raids Cadiz and other coastal towns in Spain, sinking and capturing around 30 Spanish ships and destroying supplies, delaying the Armada preparations for nearly a whole year!
September- The Duke of Parma assembles an invading fore in the Netherlands. Philip II issues instructions for the invasion of England, although Philip had made his instructions it didn't follow them in any case.
December- Philip II directs the Marquis of Santa Cruz to assemble ships for the Armada and to get them ready to sail as soon as possible. After receiving intelligence that the Spanish Armada is preparing to invade England, Elizabeth I mobilizes the English Fleet.

1588 January- The English Fleet is reduced in strength when reports are received that the Armada is not ready to sail due to Drakes damage on the fleet.
February- The Marquis of Santa Cruz dies. Philip II appoints the Duke of Medina Sidonia as the new commander of the Armada. He was soon to realise that this was a bad choice. This was a major set back for the Spanish because their navy chief had died and they had to appoint a none-experienced noble in his place. He was chosen purely and simply because of his rank in the country!
28th-30th May -The Spanish Armada sets sail from Lisbon.
2nd June- Lord Admiral Howard's squadron joins Sir Francis Drake's ships at Plymouth.
19th June- The Armada makes its way to Corunna to take on supplies of food and drink. During the night the Spanish fleet is scattered by storms.
4th July- English ships were sent out to locate the Armada.
21st-22nd July- The Armada sets sail for the second time. The English ships return to Plymouth.
29th July- The Armada is sighted as it approaches the coast of Cornwall. That evening the Western Squadron makes its way out of Plymouth Sound and into The English Channel.
30th July- The Western Squadron manages to get behind the Spanish Armada as it sails slowly towards Plymouth.
31st July- The battle near Plymouth. In the afternoon the Rosario loses her foremast in a collision and later the San Salvador catches fire and explodes.
1st August- Early in the morning the crippled Rosario is captured by Sir Francis Drake. The badly damaged San Salvador is captured by the English and towed to Weymouth.
2nd August- There was a battle near Portland Bill.
3rd August- Sea fights take place off the Needles, as ships approach The Isle of Wight.
4th August- The battle near the Isle of Wight.
5th August- The Armada, closely followed by the Western Squadron, sails towards the Straits of Dover.
6th August- Ships of the Spanish Armada and the Western Squadron anchor near Calais. Lord Henry Seymour’s Narrow Seas Squadron joins the Western Squadron.
7-8th August- Late in the evening the English launch fireship attacks against the anchored Spanish Fleet. The English were able to fool the Spanish into thinking that they were hell-burners, so they cut their anchor cables and scattered to avoid the them thinking that they would explode at any second... but they didn't!
8th August- The Battle off Gravelines. At least one ship is sunk and another is stranded at Calais. The Dutch later captures three ships.
9th August- Ships of the Spanish Armada face danger as they are driven by the wind and tide towards the Flemish sandbanks. Just after mid-day, the wind direction changes and the Armada is able to sail northwards.
10-11th August- English ships pursue the Armada as it sails northwards. Hearing that the Duke of Parma's invasion force is ready to embark, Seymour's Narrow Seas Squadron returns to the English Channel.
12th August- English ships pursuing the Armada, give up the chase and return to English ports.
13th August- The Duke of Medina Sidonia, Commander of the Armada, orders the remaining ships in his fleet to sail round Scotland and make for Spain.
18th August- Elizabeth I reviews her troops at Tilbury and makes her famous 'I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman' speech.
21st August- The Armada breaks up as it rounds the coast of Scotland and enters the Atlantic.
1-21st September- Bad weather forces a number of the Spanish ships on to the coast of Ireland, where many are wrecked. Most people droned but the people who got to the land were then killed anyway!
22nd September-14th October- Surviving ships of the Armada reach Spain.

Sources:
http://www.bezzer.co.uk/armada/timeline.html
http://en.wikipedia.org
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PostSubject: Re: CLOSING 18TH AUGUST - The Tudor Era   Tue May 29 2007, 17:23

Part 1

1. Under what circumstances did King Henry VII come to the English throne? (2)

Henry VII (1485-1509) came to the throne during the English Civil War which had lasted 85 years.

2. From when to when did he reign? (2)

1485-1509

3. List three major achievements of King Henry VIII (2)

Henry made it so that the King of England was the head of the Church of England, wrote the Bible in English, and the Act of Union of 1536, which made Wales be under English government.

4. Who was Catherine of Aragon? (2)

Catherine of Aragon was the daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. She was married to Henry VIII's sickly brother, Arthur, who died only months after their marriage. After his death Henry married the fifteen-year-old widow.

5. Who were the six wives of King Henry VIII? Please list them and state your opinion of each. Also please say how the poem, "Divorced, beheaded, died; Divorced, beheaded, survived." relates to them. (6)

"Divorced, beheaded, died; Divorced, beheaded, survived," relates to the six wives of Henry VIII because this is the order in which their reigns ended. It all began with the Spanish princess, Catharine of Aragon...

1. Catherine of Aragon (divorced): Catharine was a good wife to Henry throughout her life with him. She did all that she could for him and endured years of thankless childbearing in her attempts to provide a son for him. A very religious woman, she did not deserve the seperation that Henry forced, especially what happened to her and her daughter afterwards. She was not allowed to see her child, Mary, Henry's reasoning being that they would use time together to plot against him. After her death Henry did not even mourn, saying that he didn't have to because she had never lawfully been his wife.

2. Anne Boleyn (beheaded): A very ambitous woman, Anne, like Catharine, did not deserve the treatment Henry gave her. He did so much to make her his Queen- and not just what everyone knew about like his becoming the head of the Church of England. He took control of her life- taking away the only one she had ever loved, wrongly accusing her of adultury and incest to bring about her beheading, along with those she was accused of sleeping with.

3. Jane Seymour (died): Jane came to court as one of Catharine's ladies and remained through Anne's try at Queenship. But while Anne was Queen, the King's attention began to fall to another woman- the young Jane Seymour. He had Anne beheaded and married Jane straight away. She wasn't told to be a very strong willed woman, much in contrast to Anne, which might have been why the King was attracted to her. Whatever the case, she was the woman who bore him a son, but died only two weeks after his birth. She did not have an impact on England and so I do not think that her story is one of much interst.

4. Anne of Cleves (divorced): This Anne was chosen for an English alliance with Cleves, not for love. She was not said to have been attractive, which was one of the reasons for Henry's choice of divorce. The other was that her brother, the Duke of Cleves, was in a feud with the Emperor, and Henry, not wanting to be involved, wanted Anne out. She was passive about his decision, living out her live in Hever Castle, which, ironically, was the home of Anne Boleyn. Nothing about her story really intrigues me...

5. Kathryn Howard (beheaded): Kathryn came to the English court with Anne of Cleves. The attractive, spirited young woman caught Henry's eye and she and her family took advantage of the situation. She was a cousin of Anne Boleyn and, like her older cousin, was accused of adultury and beheaded. She bore Henry no children.

6. Catherine Parr (survived): A mature woman, Catherine Parr was a Protestant, much to the annoyance of the English, many of which were Catholics. She was charged of heresy and also treason, but was able to convince the King that this was not true and remained Queen until his death. I really like how she was able to persuade the King into believing that the accusations were not true because the previous Queens had not been able to do that.

6. Who were the children of Henry VIII? (2)

Mary I, Elizabeth I, and Edward VI

7. What happened during the meeting at the Field of Cloth of Gold? (2)

The Field of Cloth of Gold was a meeting between the English (King Henry VIII)and French (King Francois). There were tournament events that occured like jousting and the kings discussed the matter of an alliance.

8. During King Henry VIII's reign, what was the religious upheaval that occurred? (2)

While Henry was King, he decided that he needed a divorce from his first wife, Catharine of Aragon. He tried to do this lawfully, to get the Pope's agreement that his marriage was unlawful and that he could divorce her and marry Anne Boleyn instead. But the Pope would not agree, and so Henry decided that he, as ruler of the land, should not have to deal with this. He became the head of the Church of England, pushing the Pope out of the way and making it possible to end his marriage.

Part 2

1. Who was King after King Henry VIII? (2)

Edward VI was king after his father's death, but had a short reign of only six years (1547-1553).

2. Who was Queen for nine days? (2)

Lady Jane Grey was Queen of England for only nine days. Her reign was ended with her execution by the order of Mary Tudor.

3. State your opinon of her. (4)

I have no reason to dislike the woman. She tried to refuse the crown, a wise choice, but it was thrust upon her and she was forced to take it. Jane had her husband be made a Duke instead of King, another wise choice. I think it was a very sad day for England when she was executed, for she could have been a good, if not great, Queen.

4. Why was Queen Mary I nicknamed Bloody Mary? (2)

Queen Mary was a devout Roman Catholic like her mother, Catharine of Aragon (Henry's first wife). She was determined to convert all of England to Catholisim and her attempts to bring this about were ruthless.

5. Give an example of scandal that surrounded Elizabeth's life. (2)

For her young years after her mother's death she was regarded as a giggle and therefore not allowed to attain the throne.

6. For how long was Elizabeth I imprisoned during Mary's reign? (2)

She was imprisoned for three years.

7. Who said, "This is the Lord's doing; it is marvellous in our eyes" and on what occasion was it said? (4)

This quote from a psalm was said to Elizabeth when telling her that she was now Queen of England.

8. What is your opinion of Queen Elizabeth I? (6)

Elizabeth did much to support the arts and exploration. But I do not think that she was all that she is cracked up to be. Sure, she approved of the arts and exploring, but her people were the ones that encouraged it, that were ready for a change. During her half-sister's reign, the country had been in a creative slump. With Elizabeth's approval her people gladly leapt back into the arts. Yes, they defeated the Spanish Armada during her reign, many explorers, poets, playwrights, authors, and others were given free reign, but it's not like she was that involved with it all. She is also called the "Virgin Queen" because of her claim to virginity, her ideal to not let her control of her country waver, to share her power with a man of another country. All in all, I think that she was a decent Queen. Everyone needs improvement, right?

9. List a timeline of the Spanish Armada (and preparations for). Give at least three dates. (6)

Sources:

http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon40.html
http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/marytudor.html
http://tudorhistory.org/wives/
http://www.fromoldbooks.org/Wood-NuttallEncyclopaedia/c/catharineparr.html
http://www.greatsite.com/timeline-english-bible-history/king-henry.html
http://www.ladyjanegrey.org/
http://www.elizabethi.org/
Lady in the Tower by Joan Plaidy (awesome book- anyone interested in the Tudor era should read it or any of her other books )
My history class (we just finished this topic, lol)
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PostSubject: Re: CLOSING 18TH AUGUST - The Tudor Era   Fri Jun 01 2007, 10:46

Part 1
1. Under what circumstances did King Henry VII come to the English throne? (2)
King Henry VII laid claim to the throne due to the blood connection to the King before him. Though his claim with weak, most people who would protest against the claim were either dead or too weak to argue due to the War of the Roses.

2. From when to when did he reign? (2)
1485–1509 as King of England and Lord of Ireland. 1478-1485 as Earl of Richmond..

3. List three major achievements of King Henry VIII (2)
- Henry granted his assent to the Laws in Wales Act 1535.
- Henry is traditionally called one of the founders of the Royal Navy.
- Henry's break with Rome.

4. Who was Catherine of Aragon? (2)
Catherine of Aragon was the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. She married King Henry VIII on June 11, 1509, two weeks before their formal coronations. Most of her children with Henry died early on, except for Mary, who later became queen of Spain.

5. Who were the six wives of King Henry VIII? Please list them and state your opinion of each. Also please say how the poem, "Divorced, beheaded, died; Divorced, beheaded, survived." relates to them. (6)
In order from first wife to last of King Henry VIII:

    Catherine of Aragon (divorced) – Was a good wife to Henry, though with the lack of an heir, given the mindsets of people in that time, it was reasoning of divorce. But her not wanting to accept the annulment and wishing Henry would return to her has me suspecting that to her their marriage was more than politics. I believe she loved the King, but never the less her love was unrequited.

    Anne Boleyn (beheaded) – May or May not have been a loyal wife, but then again Henry wasn’t a loyal husband. Whether she slept around or not she did not deserve beheading, Henry was having an affair with Jane Seymour, just like his affair with Anne whilst with Catherine of Aragon. The main reasoning behind her beheading, in my opinion at least, was because of her lack to produce an heir.

    Jane Seymour (died) – Was the favorite wife of Henry, probley due to her birth to a male heir. Her son Edward managed to live, unlike the male children of Catherine of Aragon, but Jane wasn’t as lucky as her son. She died from post-natal complications. After her death Henry did not remarry for two years. He may have loved her, or maybe it was her ‘achievement’ of producing him an heir, either way he remembered her most fondly and was buried next to her when he died. I think that it is horrible that she died and I think that if she had lived that Henry would have spoiled her and would never have remarried.

    Anne of Cleves (divorced) – Henry married her due to the fact that he did not want to offend the Germans. He had only gotten engaged with her because Hans Holbein the Younger’s painting of her made her look radiant, but when he actually saw her he wanted nothing to do with her, but got married to her to avoid wronging the Germans. Not long after the marriage the marriage was annulled, though I don’t think Anne much cared especially since she lived a pretty cushiony life during Henry’s reign there after.

    Catherine Howard (beheaded) – She married Henry almost immediately after Henry’s annulment from Anne of Cleves was arranged. She was the cousin of Anne Boleyn, and like her cousin she was accused of adultery and was beheaded, not having born any children to Henry. She fell in love with Thomas Culpepper and due to her married queen status, her love of him got her beheaded. It is sad and tragic that love can result in such things. Her last words were, "I die a Queen, but I would rather have died the wife of Culpepper."

    Catherine Parr (survived) – Was the last wife of Henry and also the most married woman in England having had four husbands. She was a Protestant, which did not stand well with most of England who were Catholics. She had an arrest warrant drawn up for her, but she managed to resolve with the king after claiming that she had only argued about religion with him to take his mind off the suffering caused by his ulcerous leg. She reigned as queen till Henry’s death and then married for the fourth and last time to Thomas Seymour and then died from birthing problems. She seems to me the kind of person who was good at persuasion and at keeping secrets such as her religious beliefs well kept.

The poem relates because of the order of the poem is the same as the order of endings of queen hood of his wives, the first being divorced, the second beheaded, so on and so forth.

6. Who were the children of Henry VIII? (2)
The surviving, legitimate children of Henry VIII where: Queen Mary I, Queen Elizabeth I, and King Edward VI.
Died young: unnamed miscarried daughter, unnamed son, Henry, Duke of Cornwall [two sons died young with this name], unnamed child, Henry Tudor, and Edward Tudor.
Considered Illegitimate: Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset, Catherine Carey, Henry Carey, Baron Hunsdon, Sir Thomas Stucley, Sir John Perrot, and Etheldreda Malte. There way be other illegitimate children, but it is not for certain if it is true or who they are.

7. What happened during the meeting at the Field of Cloth of Gold? (2)
At this meeting, the French and the English tried to strengthen their bond of friendship after the 1518 treaty of London. At this meeting everyone tried to outshine everyone else with dazzling tents and clothes, huge feasts, music, jousting, and games.

8. During King Henry VIII's reign, what was the religious upheaval that occurred? (2)
To divorce Catherine of Aragon, he planned to do so lawfully, but to Pope did not want to annul their marriage due to pressure from Catherine’s nephew, Emperor Charles V. Henry decided to take matters into his own hands. The Act of Supremacy 1534 declared that the King was "the only Supreme Head in Earth of the Church of England". Parliament validated the marriage between King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, whom he married in secret in January of 1533.

Part 2

1. Who was King after King Henry VIII? (2)
Edward VI, son of King Henry VIII and Jane Seymour.

2. Who was Queen for nine days? (2)
Lady Jane Grey

3. State your opinon of her. (4)
I have no reason to like her or not to like her. She was forced to have the crown, but as Queen she did not let her husband, who she dislike and thought his family a traitorous lot, be king, but did offer to make him duke instead. I actually like the fact she did what she did. It was probably best he not be named king.

4. Why was Queen Mary I nicknamed Bloody Mary? (2)
She was nicknamed Bloody Mary due to her persecution of Protestants. She planned to make all of England Catholic like herself.

5. Give an example of scandal that surrounded Elizabeth's life. (2)


6. For how long was Elizabeth I imprisoned during Mary's reign? (2)
For about four years total. In 1554 she was imprisoned for two months in the Tower of London then put on house arrest until she received the throne in 1558.

7. Who said, "This is the Lord's doing; it is marvellous in our eyes" and on what occasion was it said? (4)
It was said by Elizabeth I, quoting Psalm 118, and it was said in response to a manservant reporting to her the death of her half-sister.

8. What is your opinion of Queen Elizabeth I? (6)
I believe she was a strong, independent woman. To me her reign as Queen seemed marvelous. Her reign as Queen, also know as the Elizabethan Era, was the Golden Age in English history. English literature and poetry flourished during this time. Also the Elizabethan theater thrived, with playwrights, such as William Shakespeare, expanded the magnificent of the performing arts. Her reign was a brief period of largely internal peace between the English Reformation, the Protestant/Catholic divide was settled, and England was also well off compared to the other nations of Europe. Given all these facts, Queen Elizabeth I seems like she was a magnificent and brilliant leader.

9. List a timeline of the Spanish Armada (and preparations for). Give at least three dates.

1586- Philip II invites The Marquis of Santa Cruz and Parma to prepare an invasion plan.

1586- Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, nominates Philip II as her successor to the English throne.

1588 January- The English Fleet is reduced in strength when reports are received that the Armada is not ready to sail due to Drakes damage on the fleet.

February- The Marquis of Santa Cruz dies. Philip II appoints the Duke of Medina Sidonia as the new commander of the Armada. He was soon to realise that this was a bad choice. This was a major set back for the Spanish because their navy chief had died and they had to appoint a none-experienced noble in his place. He was chosen purely and simply because of his rank in the country!
28th-30th May -The Spanish Armada sets sail from Lisbon.
2nd June- Lord Admiral Howard's squadron joins Sir Francis Drake's ships at Plymouth.
19th June- The Armada makes its way to Corunna to take on supplies of food and drink. During the night the Spanish fleet is scattered by storms.
4th July- English ships were sent out to locate the Armada.
21st-22nd July- The Armada sets sail for the second time. The English ships return to Plymouth.

7-8th August- Late in the evening the English launch fireship attacks against the anchored Spanish Fleet. The English were able to fool the Spanish into thinking that they were hell-burners, so they cut their anchor cables and scattered to avoid the them thinking that they would explode at any second... but they didn't!
8th August- The Battle off Gravelines. At least one ship is sunk and another is stranded at Calais. The Dutch later captures three ships.
9th August- Ships of the Spanish Armada face danger as they are driven by the wind and tide towards the Flemish sandbanks. Just after mid-day, the wind direction changes and the Armada is able to sail northwards.
10-11th August- English ships pursue the Armada as it sails northwards. Hearing that the Duke of Parma's invasion force is ready to embark, Seymour's Narrow Seas Squadron returns to the English Channel.
12th August- English ships pursuing the Armada, give up the chase and return to English ports.
13th August- The Duke of Medina Sidonia, Commander of the Armada, orders the remaining ships in his fleet to sail round Scotland and make for Spain.
18th August- Elizabeth I reviews her troops at Tilbury and makes her famous 'I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman' speech.
21st August- The Armada breaks up as it rounds the coast of Scotland and enters the Atlantic.
1-21st September- Bad weather forces a number of the Spanish ships on to the coast of Ireland, where many are wrecked. Most people droned but the people who got to the land were then killed anyway!
22nd September-14th October- Surviving ships of the Armada reach Spain.
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PostSubject: Re: CLOSING 18TH AUGUST - The Tudor Era   Sun Jun 10 2007, 11:14

Part 1
1. Under what circumstances did King Henry VII come to the English throne? (2)


King Henry VII came to the English throne after a Civil war. The Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485 was the last armed confrontation between Lancastrians and Yorkists, those two factions that had fought for decades in The Wars of the Roses. The Lancastrians triumphed under the leadership of a 28-year-old exile named Henry Tudor.

2. From when to when did he reign? (2)
1485-1509

3. List three major achievements of King Henry VIII (2)
severed the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established the king as the supreme head of the Church in England.
Henry granted his assent to the Laws in Wales Act 1535, which legally annexed Wales, uniting England and Wales into one unified nation.
In 1536, an uprising known as the Pilgrimage of Grace broke out in Northern England. To appease the rebellious Roman Catholics, Henry agreed to allow Parliament to address their concerns. Furthermore, he agreed to grant a general pardon to all those involved. He kept neither promise, and a second uprising occurred in 1537.

4. Who was Catherine of Aragon? (2)
Catherine of Aragon was the youngest surviving child of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. As was common for princesses of the day, her parents almost immediately began looking for a political match for her. When she was three year old, she was betrothed to Arthur, the son of Henry VII of England. Arthur was not even quite two at the time.

5. Who were the six wives of King Henry VIII? Please list them and state your opinion of each. Also please say how the poem, "Divorced, beheaded, died; Divorced, beheaded, survived." relates to them. (6)

Catherine of Aragon - Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket - I feel slightly sorry for Catherine as she did not have much choice in the matter of marriage to Henry. It also wasn’t her fault if she did not give birth to a male.

Anne Boleyn - Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket - I feel very sorry for her as she was executed .

Jane Seymour - Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket - I am glad that Jane died instead of executed like the woman before but I do think it is rather foolish to marry someone who has been married to many people before.

Anne of cleves - Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket - I feel very sorry for Anne as her marriage to Henry was just one of political use.

Kathryn Howard - Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket - I think that Kathryn must have been very silly to marry Henry after getting rid of all his wives in one way or another (bar Jane) and it is that stupidity that got her executed and I don’t feel sorry for her.

Katherine Parr - Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket - Katherine was the last of Henrys wives and if I was her I would be glad if he was dead.

The poem relates to them because that’s what happened to them all during there marriage with Henry.

6. Who were the children of Henry VIII? (2)
Queen Mary I, Queen Elizabeth I, and King Edward VI.

7. What happened during the meeting at the Field of Cloth of Gold? (2)
In the Field of Cloth of Gold, a meeting between King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France was arrange to increase the bond of friendship between them following the Anglo-French treaty of 1518.

8. During King Henry VIII's reign, what was the religious upheaval that occurred? (2)
The English Reformation

Part 2

1. Who was King after King Henry VIII? (2)
Edward VI

2. Who was Queen for nine days? (2)
Lady Jane Grey

3. State your opinion of her. (4)
I do not think she could have been so great if she was only Queen for nine days and that she must have been most unpopular

4. Why was Queen Mary I nicknamed Bloody Mary? (2)
Mary earned her nickname, "Bloody Mary," because during her reign, she had more than 300 persons burned at the stake for heresy.

5. Give an example of scandal that surrounded Elizabeth's life. (2)
Elizabeth was thought to be a giggle. This meant that she could not Marry or take the throne.

6. For how long was Elizabeth I imprisoned during Mary's reign? (2)
For about four years.

7. Who said, "This is the Lord's doing; it is marvellous in our eyes" and on what occasion was it said? (4)
Elizabeth I
it was said in response to a manservant reporting to her the death of her half-sister.

8. What is your opinion of Queen Elizabeth I? (6)
I think that Elizabeth is a most magnificent person many people regard her as the best Queen England has ever had and to be known as that must be the most wonderful thing ever. I also think that she is a strong women who knew what she wanted and let nothing get in her way. She was also very beautiful.

[b]9. List a timeline of the Spanish Armada (and preparations for). Give at least three dates. (6) [b]

1584- Philip II of Spain appoints the Marquis of Santa Cruz as Captain General of the Ocean Sea.

1585- Philip II considers the possibility of invading England.

1586- Philip II invites The Marquis of Santa Cruz and Parma to prepare an invasion plan.

1586- Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, nominates Philip II as her successor to the English throne.

1587 February- Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, is executed after being found guilty of plotting to overthrow Elizabeth I.
April-June- Sir Francis Drake raids Cadiz and other coastal towns in Spain, sinking and capturing around 30 Spanish ships and destroying supplies, delaying the Armada preparations for nearly a whole year!
September- The Duke of Parma assembles an invading fore in the Netherlands. Philip II issues instructions for the invasion of England, although Philip had made his instructions it didn't follow them in any case.
December- Philip II directs the Marquis of Santa Cruz to assemble ships for the Armada and to get them ready to sail as soon as possible. After receiving intelligence that the Spanish Armada is preparing to invade England, Elizabeth I mobilizes the English Fleet.

1588 January- The English Fleet is reduced in strength when reports are received that the Armada is not ready to sail due to Drakes damage on the fleet.
February- The Marquis of Santa Cruz dies. Philip II appoints the Duke of Medina Sidonia as the new commander of the Armada. He was soon to realise that this was a bad choice. This was a major set back for the Spanish because their navy chief had died and they had to appoint a none-experienced noble in his place. He was chosen purely and simply because of his rank in the country!
28th-30th May -The Spanish Armada sets sail from Lisbon.
2nd June- Lord Admiral Howard's squadron joins Sir Francis Drake's ships at Plymouth.
19th June- The Armada makes its way to Corunna to take on supplies of food and drink. During the night the Spanish fleet is scattered by storms.
4th July- English ships were sent out to locate the Armada.
21st-22nd July- The Armada sets sail for the second time. The English ships return to Plymouth.
29th July- The Armada is sighted as it approaches the coast of Cornwall. That evening the Western Squadron makes its way out of Plymouth Sound and into The English Channel.
30th July- The Western Squadron manages to get behind the Spanish Armada as it sails slowly towards Plymouth.
31st July- The battle near Plymouth. In the afternoon the Rosario loses her foremast in a collision and later the San Salvador catches fire and explodes.
1st August- Early in the morning the crippled Rosario is captured by Sir Francis Drake. The badly damaged San Salvador is captured by the English and towed to Weymouth.
2nd August- There was a battle near Portland Bill.
3rd August- Sea fights take place off the Needles, as ships approach The Isle of Wight.
4th August- The battle near the Isle of Wight.
5th August- The Armada, closely followed by the Western Squadron, sails towards the Straits of Dover.
6th August- Ships of the Spanish Armada and the Western Squadron anchor near Calais. Lord Henry Seymour’s Narrow Seas Squadron joins the Western Squadron.
7-8th August- Late in the evening the English launch fireship attacks against the anchored Spanish Fleet. The English were able to fool the Spanish into thinking that they were hell-burners, so they cut their anchor cables and scattered to avoid the them thinking that they would explode at any second... but they didn't!
8th August- The Battle off Gravelines. At least one ship is sunk and another is stranded at Calais. The Dutch later captures three ships.
9th August- Ships of the Spanish Armada face danger as they are driven by the wind and tide towards the Flemish sandbanks. Just after mid-day, the wind direction changes and the Armada is able to sail northwards.
10-11th August- English ships pursue the Armada as it sails northwards. Hearing that the Duke of Parma's invasion force is ready to embark, Seymour's Narrow Seas Squadron returns to the English Channel.
12th August- English ships pursuing the Armada, give up the chase and return to English ports.
13th August- The Duke of Medina Sidonia, Commander of the Armada, orders the remaining ships in his fleet to sail round Scotland and make for Spain.
18th August- Elizabeth I reviews her troops at Tilbury and makes her famous 'I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman' speech.
21st August- The Armada breaks up as it rounds the coast of Scotland and enters the Atlantic.
1-21st September- Bad weather forces a number of the Spanish ships on to the coast of Ireland, where many are wrecked. Most people droned but the people who got to the land were then killed anyway!
22nd September-14th October- Surviving ships of the Armada reach Spain.


Total Possible Points: 50

Sources: http://englishhistory.net/tudor/monarchs/henry7.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VIII_of_England
http://tudorhistory.org/wives/
http://www.bezzer.co.uk/armada/timeline.html
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PostSubject: Re: CLOSING 18TH AUGUST - The Tudor Era   Sat Jun 16 2007, 13:53

Part 1

1. Under what circumstances did King Henry VII come to the English throne? (2)

His claim to the throne was based upon a lineage of illegitimate succession, and overlooked the fact that the Beauforts had been disinherited by an earlier act of attainder.

2. From when to when did he reign? (2)
August 22, 1485 - April 21, 1509

3. List three major achievements of King Henry VIII (2)
Thanks to him, the King was made the Head of Church

4. Who was Catherine of Aragon? (2)
Catherine of Aragon was the first wife of Henry VIII of England.

5. Who were the six wives of King Henry VIII? Please list them and state your opinion of each. Also please say how the poem, "Divorced, beheaded, died; Divorced, beheaded, survived." relates to them. (6)

- Catherine of Aragon: DIVORCED
Humble and Loyal.

Catherine of Aragon divorced from King Henry VIII, as the poem says. In my opinion, Catherine went through loads of things during her lifetime. Of course, it might have been normal to give birth to many children, get divorced many times, have miscarriages on and on at that time. Still, I think she's a darn strong woman, if you read through all the events she's been through!

- Anne Boleyn: EXECUTED
The Most Happy.

Anne was executed (beheaded, in the poem) after 3 years of marriages to King HenryVIII. She was the reason why Henry and Catherine divorced. First, she was just Henry's mistress along with another woman called Bessie Blount. Her sister was also one fo the King's mistresses, Mary Boleyn. Then, Henry fell in love with Anne, and wanted to marry her, meaning divorcing from Catherine. I don't actually like her that much. I mean, she seems like a lady who steals other people's husbands! Okay, sure, right - it happened back then. BUT STILL! She doesn't have my respect, no matter how much in love the King was. But when Anne had a miscarriage - which had been a boy - she balmed her 'state of mind'. It's pretty scary, that the fact of producing living male heirs became a threat to her own life, since the King started to grew more and more attached to one of Anne's ladies-in-waiting, Jane Seymour. She was executed 19th May, 1536. The charges were "adultery, incest and plotting to murder the King." Yes, everything turned against her in the end...

- Jane Seymour: DIED
Bound to Obey and Serve.

Jane was the only one that Henry felt to be his 'true wife'. It's pretty much to say after two failed marriages. And that said only because Jane finally gave him an heir; a baby boy, Edward. Mary, daughter of Catherine of Aragon, was godmother and Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn, also played a role in the ceremony. After one year of marriage, and two weeks after her son's birth, Jane died. As Henry had prepared his own tomb at St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, Jane was buried there too. She was actually the only of his six wives that would be buried with him.

- Anne of Cleves: DIVORCED
God Send Me Well To Keep.

Henry was never attracted to Anne. Their marriage was like a contract, really. Anne wasn't that attached to Henry either. In the end, they divorced and Anne got Anne Boley's former home, Hever Castle. All she had to do was say at the court that her earlier marriage to the Duke of Lorraine wasn't completly broken, and culdn't therefor stay married to Henry. At this point - or before - King Henry had started to get attracted to Kathryn Howard.

- Kathryn Howard: EXECUTED
No Other Will Than His.

Kathryn was first cousin to Anne Boleyn, Henry's ill-fated second Queen, so it's a bit ironic that she - also - got executed. Kathryn was Anne of Cleve's lady-in-waiting, and got Henry's attention. Kathryn's encouraged her to response to the King's attentions, so that his influence over the monarch would grow. Kathryn became Henry's fifth wife when Henry was already 49 years old, and she was no older than 19. No more than a year after their marriage, Kathryn started to seek company from men in her own age. Geez, Henry could have been her dad! *shudders* Anyway, she flirted a lot, and it was dangerous for a Queen to do so, and it didn't help that she came form a family with many enemies that could use this piece of information against her. She didn't help matters by appointing one of her admirers as her personal secretary. When the King was informed by the accusations, he didn't believe them, but let the investigations continue further. It came out that Kathryn had been rather promiscuous before her marriage to Henry, and had several affairs during their marriage. Because of this, she was executed, and laid to rest near her first cousin, Anne Boleyn. ROCK ON, I say!

- Katherine Parr: WIDOWED
To Be Useful in All That I Do.

Being the last wife of King Henry, she was the daughter of Thomas Parr of Kendal, a modest country squire who had distinguished himself in the service of both Henry VII and Henry VIII. Katherine became more like a nurse to Henry, as his health wasn't that good. Thanks to her sensitive and caring nature, she managed to soother the King's temper and even bring the whole family closer. It's rather unfortunate that she became yet again a widow when Henry died - her two earlier husband's had also died. She and Henry had no children. Katherine is being the 'only one that survived' of six wives. Congrats to her! :D

6. Who were the children of Henry VIII? (2)
Catherine Carey, Edward VI of England, Elizabeth I of England, Henry - Duke of Cornwall, Henry Carey - 1st Baron Hunsdon, Mary I of England, Henry FitzRoy - 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset, Edward Tudor (I), Henry Tudor (II).

7. What happened during the meeting at the Field of Cloth of Gold? (2)
Each king tried to outshine the other, with dazzling tents and clothes, huge feasts, music, jousting, and games (King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France)

8. During King Henry VIII's reign, what was the religious upheaval that occurred? (2)
The Pilgrimage of Grace broke out in Northern England.

Part 2

1. Who was King after King Henry VIII? (2)

Edward VI

2. Who was Queen for nine days? (2)
Lady Jane Grey

3. State your opinon of her. (4)
Even if she was imprisoned for treason, she had the reputation as one fo the learned women of her day. Her execution was private - in due to her cousin Queen Mary's orders, 'in respect for her 16-year old cousin Jane'. Yes, we would all like that kind of respect; a private execution, yeeeep. FEEL THE LOVE!!!! xD Okay, so Jane had a rough childhood; her mother was abusive and dominering woman, and Jane never got the love and caring she wanted and needed. So what would a girl like Jane do? Yes, she found her comfort in books and such, and soon enough, she mastered the arts and languages. At the age of 9, she was sent to live with Queen Katherine Parr, who had recently become a widow of Jane's great-uncle. Queen Katherine - being a loving woman - took Jane under her wing and took care of her. So now Jane got the love she deserved. But when Katherine died, Jane was left alone with the sorrow. I think Jane was a brave young girl. Imagine - being executed at the age of 16!

4. Why was Queen Mary I nicknamed Bloody Mary? (2)
Because during Mary's five-year reign, 283 individuals were killed. Twice as many had shared the same fate during the previous century-and-a-half of English history!

5. Give an example of scandal that surrounded Elizabeth's life. (2)
She was regarded as a 'giggle', and couldn't take over the throne because of that.

6. For how long was Elizabeth I imprisoned during Mary's reign? (2)
For three years.

7. Who said, "This is the Lord's doing; it is marvellous in our eyes" and on what occasion was it said? (4)
It's from Psalm 118:23, and was said by Elizabeth I when she was told that she was going to take over the throne.

8. What is your opinion of Queen Elizabeth I? (6)
Well, I don't like Kings and Queens that much anyway, but I try to look at this from another point of view. She gives the impression of a strong woman, who did what she saw was the best for her country and its people. She was never married, so she might have been a bit of a loner...ish. She was named "Virgin Queen" because she was never married, so then it's OBVIOUSLY true that she's a virgin. Kings were allowed to have mistresses, we know this, but it was dangerous for a woman, yet alone for a Queen, to have a lover. People were so weird back then... But it's not sure if she really WAS a virgin. Not that it would've changed the way she ruled. All in all, she was a great Queen, the best Queen England had had, to be truthful.

9. List a timeline of the Spanish Armada (and preparations for). Give atleast three dates. (6)

Sources:
- Henry VIII
- Elizabeth I
- The Six Wives of Henry VIII
My lovely history book from sixth grade xD
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PostSubject: Re: CLOSING 18TH AUGUST - The Tudor Era   Sat Aug 18 2007, 08:56

On behalf of your professor, I pronounce this class closed!

Well done to everyone who participated. Your housepoints are as follows




GRYFFINDOR


Caroru: 44





RAVENCLAW


Elana: 44


Polly: 50





SLYTHERIN


Drkangelcat: 48





HUFFLEPUFF


Auricachan: 50

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